Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis); Brassicaceae
Hybrids – Snow Mystique , Snow ball
Climate and Soil – It requires cool moist climate. Deep loamy soils rich in organic matter with good drainage are suitable for cauliflower cultivation. It can be grown in a pH range of 5.5 to 6.6.
Season and Sowing – The early varieties may tolerate higher temperature and long days. Late Varieties like Snowball can be grown in hills.
Nursery – For planting one hectare, 100 sq.m nursery area is required. Apply FYM at 300 kg / 100 sq.m. Sow the seeds at 10 cm between rows in raised beds. Land infected with ‘club root disease’ should be avoided for raising seedlings. Transplant 30 days old seedlings. The following spacing are adopted for different seasons
Early season varieties: 40 x 30 cm
Mid season varieties : 60 x 40 cm and
Late varieties : 60 x 45 cm
A nursery area of 5 cents with a slanting slope of 2% is required for the production of seedlings for 1 ha. Cover the nursery area with 50 per cent shade net and the sides with 40/50 mesh insect proof nylon net. Form raised beds of 1m width and convenient length inside the nursery and the portrays are placed over the bed. Decomposed, pH neutralised coir compost is used as a media for raising protray seedlings.
Seed rate – 375 g/ha.
Protray – The protrays of 98 cells are ideal for cauliflower seedling production. Around 300 protrays are required for the production of 29,400 seedlings required for one hectare at spacing of 60 x 45 x 45 cm in three row planting.
Growing Medium – The sterilized cocopeat of 720kg is mixed with 10 kg of neem cake and one kg each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria to prepare media for raising seedlings for one hectare. About 1.25 kg of the cocopeat medium is required for each tray.
Seed Treatment – 375 g of hybrid cauliflower seed is required for the production of seedlings for one ha. A quantity of 25g of Azospirillum is required for the seed treatment of 375g cauliflower seeds.
Sow the seeds in protrays @ one seed per cell. Cover the seeds with cocopeat and keep the tray one over the other (8-10Nos) and covered with polythene sheet for five days or till germination starts. After five days, when the seeds start germinating, arrange the protrays on the raised beds inside the shade net nursery. Water the tray by rose can everyday (twice / day) upto seed germination. The cauliflower seedlings are ready for transplanting in 25 days. The protrays are to be covered whenever there is rain forecast to prevent spread of disease.
Preparation of field – Bring the soil to fine tilth. A spacing of 60 cm either way in hills is recommended.
Irrigation – Once in a week during January and February.
Install drip system with main and sub-main and the inline laterals placed at the interval of 1.5 m. Place the drippers at the interval of 60 cm for 4 LPH or 50 cm for 3.5 LPH, in the lateral system. Form raised beds at 120 cm width at an interval of 30cm and place the laterals at the centre of each bed. Under rainfed situation it is necessary to maintain the soil moisture and whenever moisture is insufficient sprinkler irrigation can be adopted.
Application of Manures
Growing Lupin as green manure to get the biomass of 6-7 tonnes /ha and incorporated in situ on 45-50 DAS.
Basal application of 20 t of FYM and 2 kg each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria and top dressing of vermicompost @ 2 t/ha in 2 equal splits at 15 days interval (15 days after planting and 30 days after planting).
Foliar Nutrition – Spray 3% Panchagavya twice at 30 and 45 days after planting
After Cultivation – Gap filling after 20 days of planting to maintain the population and uniform growth. Hoeing and weeding on 30th and 45th day. Avoid deep intercultivation as it is a shallow rooted crop.
- Install yellow sticky traps @ 12 no./ha to monitor Macropterous adults (winged adult).
- Spray neem oil 3 % with 0.5ml teepol/lit or
- Spray Azadirachtin 5% Neem Seed Kernal Extract @ 5.0 ml/1.0 lit of water
Diamond back moth
- Grow mustard as intercrop at 20:1 ratio.
- Install pheromone traps @ 12 Nos/ha.
- Spray NSKE 5.0ml /litre of water or Beauveria bassiana 10SC 2ml/lit
Club root disease
- Seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens at 10 g/ kg of seeds followed by seedling dip @ 5 g/ l and soil application @ 2.5 kg/ha with 50 kg FYM before planting
- Follow crop rotation
- Crucifers should be avoided for three years
Yield – 20 – 30 t/ha