Tapioca (Manihot esculenta crantz.) ; Euphorbiaceae
Varieties – CO 2, CO 3, CO (TP) 4, MVD 1, H 165, H 226, Sree Visakham (H.1687), Sree Sahya (H.2304), Sree Prakash (S. 856), Sree Vijaya, Sree Jaya, Sree Rekha and Sree Prabha, Sree Athulya, Sree Raksha (CMD resistant), Yethapur 1(YTP 1)
Soil and Climate – Well drained soil, preferably red lateritic loam with a pH range of 5.5-7.0 is ideal. Thrives best in warm humid climate with well distributed rainfall of over 100 cm per annum. This crop can be cultivated upto an elevation of 1000m from MSL.
Season and Planting
Plant throughout the year under irrigation. Planted during April for rainfed crop. Select healthy mosaic free vigorous plants for taking planting materials. Prepare setts of 15 cm long with 8 – 10 nodes from the middle portion of the stem. Avoid mechanical damage while preparing and handling of setts. Dip the setts for 20 minutes in Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria each at 30 g/l.
Preparation of field
The field should be ploughed for 4 – 5 times to get fine tilth. The soil depth should be at least 30 cm. The ridges and furrows should be formed at the following spacing
Irrigated – 75 x 75 cm (17,777 setts) and 90 x 90 cm (12,345 setts).
Rainfed – 60 x 60 cm (27,777 setts)
Irrigation – First irrigation is given at the time of planting. Life irrigation is given on the 3rd day of planting followed by once in 7 – 10 days upto 3rd month and once in 20 – 30 days upto 8th month.
Install drip system with main and sub-main and place the inline laterals at the interval of 1.5 m. Place the drippers at the interval of 60 cm for 4 LPH and 50 cm for 3.5 LPH in the lateral system. Form raised beds at 120 cm width and spread the laterals at the centre of each bed.
Raise CO 2 vegetable cowpea during March and harvest green pods before planting cassava during June – July. After green pod harvest, incorporate the cowpea haulms into the field by disc ploughing. Through sequential cropping, 50% reduction in application of FYM (12.5 t/ha) and P (30 kg/ha) is ensured.
Application of Manures
- Apply 25 t FYM/ha and incorporate at the time of planting.
- Apply vermicompost @ 3 t/ha as basal and 3 t/ha on 90 days after planting during earthing up
- Apply FYM at 12.5 t/ha along with vermicompost @ 3 t/ha as basal.
- Apply 2 kg of Azotobactor through soil application at 30 – 60 days after planting on receipt of showers
Fill up the gaps within 20 days of planting. Carry out first weeding 20 days after planting. Subsequent weeding should be done once in a month upto 5 months depending upon the weed intensity. Thin to two shoots per plant during 60th day. Grow aggregatum onion, coriander, short duration pulses and short duration vegetables as intercrops from planting to 60 days of duration.
White fly (Bemisia tabaci)
Integrated Pest Management practices:
1. Remove alternate weed hosts viz., Abutilon indicum.
2. Install yellow sticky trap at 12 Nos/ha.
3. Use nitrogen judiciously.
4. Avoid excessive irrigation.
5. Spray neem oil 3 % or fish oil rosin soap 25 g/l. While using neem oil, teepol should be added @ 1 ml/l for better contact with foliage.
6. Avoid extending the crop growth beyond its duration.
1. Install sticky cum light trap and operate between 4 and 6 am to attract adults.
2. Conserve parasitoids Encarsia haitiensis and E. guadeloupae.
Papaya mealy bug
Release of mealy bug parasitioid (Acerophagus papayae) @100 Nos./acre.
- Select the planting materials from healthy plants
- Remove alternate weed hosts viz., Abutilon indicum
- Install yellow sticky trap at 12 Nos/ha
- Use nitrogen judiciously
- Avoid excessive irrigation
- Spray neem oil @ 3 % or fish oil rosin soap @ 25 g/l. Teepol should be added @ 1 ml/l for better contact with foliage
- Avoid extending the crop growth beyond its duration
- Avoid water stagnation
- Give good drainage facilities
- soil application of Trichoderma asperellum @ 2.5 kg/ha as basal and at 3rd and 6th month after planting
Crop Duration: 9 to 11 months.
Crop can be harvested at 9 to 11 months after planting. During tuber maturity, the leaves become yellow and 50 % of leaves become dried and sheds off. The soil near the stem base shows cracking. Tubers can be uprooted by using fork or crow bar.
Irrigated : 40 – 50 t/ha
Rainfed : 20 – 25 t/ha